Salmonella enterica, formerly Salmonella choleraesuis, is the causative agent of a spectrum of diseases, including enteric fever (typhoid) and self-limiting gastroenteritis, and remains a significant foodborne pathogen throughout both developed and developing countries.
In the United States, each year non-typhoid Salmonella affects approximately 2-3 million persons and cause 500-2,000 deaths. Human infection usually occurs when consuming contaminated foods and water, contact with infected feces, as well as contact with infective animals, animal feed, or humans. Foods that pose a higher risk include meat, poultry, milk products, and egg products.
After an incubation period of about 24 hours, the most common clinical presentation of salmonellosis is acute enteritis, best known as “food-poisoning”. These symptoms include: