Mouse Parvovirus type 1 (MPV-)1, along with minute virus of mice, is one of two major parvoviruses affecting murine populations. The virus used to be known as orphan parvovirus because of the distinct detrimental effects it has on developing fetuses.
Parvoviruses require rapidly dividing cells such as GI, skin, and lymphoid organs to survive and die after a short time in the environment. Mice shed the virus in urine, nasal secretions and feces primarily, though they may be transmitted via respiratory routes. These pathogens are highly contagious once they become airborne or through soiled bedding and spread rapidly among close populations such as research animals.
Typically, there are no clinical signs of infection for MPV-1 virus even in immunodeficient animals, making detection especially challenging. However, the effects of infection can be observed in developing fetuses and in immune system response. These include: