Encyclopedia of Common Pathogens

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Acinetobacter baumannii

Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium. It can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans, affecting… Read More.

Avian Adenovirus

Aviadenoviruses are adenoviruses that affect birds – particularly chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and pheasants. Viruses in this genus cause specific disease syndromes such as… Read More

Adenovirus Type 2

Adenoviruses are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome. They have a broad range of …Read more

Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus which infects chickens, causing the associated disease, infectious bronchitis (IB). It is a highly infectious avian pathogen which Read More

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus niger causes… Read More

Avian Influenza A H3N2 Virus

Avian Influenza A H3N2 variant viruses (also known as “H3N2v” viruses) with the matrix (M) gene from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus were first detected in people in… Read More

Avian Influenza A H5N1 Virus

H5N1 is a type of influenza virus that causes a highly infectious, severe respiratory disease in birds called avian influenza (or “bird flu”). Human cases of H5N1 avian influenza occur occasionally, but it is difficult to transmit the infection from Read More.

Avian Influenza Virus (H9N2)

H9N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (bird flu virus). It  is the most common subtype of influenza viruses in Chinese chickens and thus causes great economic loss for the poultry industry, even under the long-term… Read More

Avian Reovirus

Avian reoviruses belong to the genus Orthoreovirus, and Reoviridae family. They are non-enveloped viruses that undergo replication in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Avian reoviruses are ubiquitous among… Read More


Bordetella bronchiseptica

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a small, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that has long been associated with respiratory tract infections in laboratory research, food-producing, companion, and wildlife … Read More

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a small, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that has long been associated with respiratory tract infections in laboratory research, food-producing, companion, and wildlife Read More

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)

Bovine viral diarrhea is a viral disease of cattle and other ruminants that is caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) Read more.

Brevibacterium ammoniagenes

Brevibacterium ammoniagenes are Gram-positive soil organisms that occur commonly in nature in the soil, water, plants, and food products Read More.


Candida albicans

The Candida albicans yeast is an opportunistic fungus and a normal part of your gut flora. It does not proliferate outside the human body. Overgrowth of the yeast can, however, cause a number of health issues Read More.

Canine Adenovirus

Canine Adenovirus, also known as infectious canine hepatitis is a worldwide, contagious disease of dogs that affects liver, kidneys, eyes and the cells that line the interior surface of the blood vessels Read More.

Corynebacterium bovis

Corynebacterium bovis is a pathogenic, Gram-positive rod which has been identified as the cause of a bacterial skin disease of nude mice as well as mastitis and pyelonephritis in cattle Read More

Canine Coronavirus

Canine coronavirus is a highly contagious intestinal disease that can be found in dogs all around the world. This particular coronavirus is specific to dogs, both wild and domestic, replicating itself inside the small intestine. Canine coronavirus is, however, limited to the upper two-thirds of the small intestine and local lymph nodes Read more.

Candida Auris

Candida auris is a species of fungus which grows as yeast, first described in 2009. It has recently attracted increased attention because of its multi-drug resistance Read More.

Canine Distemper Virus

Canine distemper is a contagious and serious viral illness with no known cure. The disease affects dogs, and certain species of wildlife. Young, unvaccinated puppies and non-immunized older-dogs are at the greatest risk of infection Read more.

Canine Parainfluenza Virus (Kennel Cough)

Also known as Kennel cough, Canine Parainfluenza Virus is a non-life-threatening cold-like condition that causes coughing and other symptoms in dogs. Canine Parainfluenza Virus (CPIV) can spread rapidly through dense populations like kennels and shelters Read more.


A coronavirus is a kind of common virus that causes an infection in your nose, sinuses, or upper throat. Most coronaviruses are not considered to be dangerous but spread very easily through close contact with infected persons Read more.

Canine Parvovirus

Canine parvovirus is a highly contagious virus that can affect all dogs, but puppies younger than four months old are the most at risk. The virus affects dogs’ gastrointestinal tracts and is spread by direct dog-to-dog contact and contact with contaminated feces, environments, or people Read more. 


See “SARS-CoV-2” or visit Quiplabs.com/covid-19/

Clostridium Difficile

Clostridium difficile , known also as C. difficile, can cause symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. C. difficile most commonly affects older adults in hospitals or in long-term care facilities often following long term use of antibiotic medications Read more.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that puts almost anyone at risk for infection. Once infected, that virus remains in the host’s body for life, though few are aware they have contracted CMV because it rarely causes problems in healthy people … Read more.



Ebola Virus

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease most commonly affecting people and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).  Read more.

Enterobacter aerogenes

Enterobacter aerogenes is a nosocomial and pathogenic bacterium that causes opportunistic infections. It is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. E. aerogenes is generally found in the human gastrointestinal tract and does not generally cause disease in healthy individuals. It has been found to live in various wastes, hygienic chemicals, and soil … Read more.

Enterococcus faecalis

Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive, commensal bacterium commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Like other species similar species, E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans, especially in hospital environments, where … Read more.

Equine Arteritis

Equine arteritis is an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus The virus is an acute, contagious, viral disease of equids. There is no known hazard to humans associated with Equine arteritis … Read more. 

Enterococcus faecium

Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive bacterium. In appearance, it is a spherical cell that can occur in pairs or chains. The colonies formed are 1-2 mm in length and appear wet. It can be commensal in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, however, it may also be pathogenic, causing diseases such as neonatal meningitis or endocarditis… Read more.

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, are Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. E. coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria with many variants. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can be extremely dangerous… Read more.


Feline Calicivirus

Feline calicivirus infection is a common respiratory disease in cats. The virus attacks the respiratory tract, the mouth, with ulceration of the tongue, the intestines, and the musculoskeletal system. It is highly communicable in unvaccinated cats and is commonly seen in multicat facilities, shelters, poorly ventilated households, and breeding catteries … Read more.

Foot and Mouth Disease

Foot and mouth disease is a common viral illness that usually affects infants and children younger than 5 years old. The virus is spread through close physical contact and contact with contaminated surfaces. Typical symptoms of foot and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash … Read more.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus

Feline infectious peritonitis sometimes known as FIP, is the name given to an uncommon, but usually fatal, aberrant immune response to infection with feline coronavirus… Read more.

Feline Leukemia virus

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is second only to trauma as the leading cause of death in cats, killing 85% of persistently infected felines within three years of diagnosis. The virus commonly causes anemia or lymphoma, but because it suppresses the immune system, it can also predispose cats to deadly infections… Read more. 


Gentamicin, methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

Gentamicin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, better known as MRSA, is a bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics. MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans from sepsis, to pneumonia, to bloodstream infections. The bacteria is spread through contact with infected persons or infected objects or surface… Read more.


Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection occurs when a type of bacteria that infects the gastrointestinal system of humans. H. pylori is a common cause of peptic ulcers and infection may be present in more than half the people in the world. Most people don’t realize they have H. pylori infection because symptoms very rarely occur outside of peptic ulcers … Read more.

Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B, sometimes known as HBV, is a liver infection best prevented by a vaccine. Hepatitis B is transmitted when blood, semen, or another body fluid from an infected person to a non-infected person … Read more.


Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of viruses that cause a severe multisystem syndrome, failure across multiple organ systems. Characteristically, the overall vascular system is damaged, and the body’s ability to regulate itself is impaired. While some types of hemorrhagic fever viruses can cause relatively mild illnesses, many of these viruses cause severe, life-threatening disease … Read more.

Hepatitis C Virus

Hepatitis C virus is a blood-borne virus that affects the liver of humans. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for the majority, it becomes a long-term, chronic infection… Read more.

Hepatitis A Virus

Hepatitis A virus is a vaccine-preventable, communicable virus affecting the liver. It is usually transmitted person-to-person through the fecal-oral route or consumption of contaminated food or water … Read more.

Hepatitis Virus (MHV-JHM)

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a type coronavirus that affects rodents, especially colonies of laboratory mice. The virus causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality rates and can be catastrophic among dense populations. Although the infection generally causes no overt clinical signs, it can cause profound changes in the immune system, affecting the interpretation of a wide variety of experimental results… Read more.

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, also known as oral herpes (HSV-1), causes sores around the mouth and lips which are known as fever blisters or cold sores. HSV-1 is a highly contagious infection, which is common and endemic throughout the world… Read more.

Human Coronavirus

Coronaviruses are viruses, belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, that typically affect the respiratory tract of mammals and humans – they are associated with the common cold and pneumonia. Coronaviruses are responsible for roughly 30% of cases of the common cold… Read more.

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) infection is widespread throughout the world and is almost exclusively sexually transmitted, resulting in genital herpes.  Infection with HSV-2 is lifelong and incurable. The virus causes painful sores in genital and anal areas… Read more.

Human Coronavirus (SARS)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus. SARS was first reported in Asia in February 2003. The illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained… Read more.


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that weakens a person’s immune system by destroying important disease and infection-fighting cells. No effective cure exists for HIV, yet. However, with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. In the US, certain risk factors that increase the likelihood of transmission have been identified, including their sex partners, their intravenous drug use, as well as socio-economic factors… Read more.

Human Influenza A virus

Influenza, commonly known as “flu”, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus. Symptoms can be mild to severe. Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak. The flu is highly contagious and spreads through contact with an infected person… Read more.

Human Rotavirus

Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children. Nearly every child in the world is infected with rotavirus at least once by the age of five. Immunity develops with each infection, so subsequent infections are less severe and adults are rarely affected. It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis, known as “stomach flu”… Read more.


Infectious Avian Laryngotracheitis virus

Infectious avian laryngotracheitis virus (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious, herpesvirus infection of chickens and pheasants characterized by severe dyspnea, coughing, and rales. The disease is commonly known as infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and has been reported from most areas of the USA in which poultry are intensively reared, as well as from many other countries… Read more.

Infectious bursal disease virus

Infectious bursal disease, IBD (also known as Gumboro disease, infectious bursitis and infectious avian nephrosis) is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)… Read more.

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a highly contagious, infectious respiratory disease that is caused by Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1). It can affect young and older cattle.IBR is characterized by acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. After the first infection, the virus is never fully removed… Read more.

Infectious Canine Hepatitus Virus

Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). CAV-1 also causes disease in wolves, coyotes, and bears, and encephalitis in foxes.The virus is spread through contact with infected dogs via feces, urine, blood, saliva, and nasal discharge. Pathogens enter the body through the mouth or nose, where it replicates in the tonsils… Read more.

Infectious Bronchitis virus

The Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) is a variety of Coronavirus that targets not only the respiratory tract but also the urogenital tract. The virus can, however, spread to different organs throughout the body.  The most common way to “get” or “catch” a bronchitis infection is through a separate viral or bacterial infection… Read more.

Infectious Laryngotracheitis

Infectious Laryngotracheitis is a type of herpesvirus affecting the upper respiratory tract of its hosts. The disease is highly infectious and has serious economic implications for poultry and egg production worldwide. Infectious Laryngotracheitis is extremely resistant outside host but is susceptible to disinfectants…  Read more.

Influenza A H1N1 Virus

The H1N1 virus is a highly contagious airborne pathogen. H1N1 is also mistakenly known as “swine flu”. Despite the name, the virus is not associated with swine or pigs. It is, in fact, a very different virus than those that infect swine. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009, though cases have declined significantly since … Read more.

Influenza A/2 Japan 305

Influenza A/2 virus a single-celled RNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Like other variants of the influenza virus, Influenza A virus infects the respiratory system of birds and some mammals, including humans. Like other flu’s, outbreaks are more common in during “flu season”, from late fall through early spring. The virus is occasionally transmitted from wildfowl to domestic flocks, resulting in pandemic infection outbreaks… Read more.

Influenza A Strain Hong Kong

Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that cause influenza. H3N2 Viruses can infect birds and mammals. H3N2 is increasingly abundant in seasonal influenza. One notable outbreak of H3N2 occurred in Hong Kong in 1968, the virus is therefore commonly referred to as the “Hong Kong Flu”. The virus spreads through airborne avenues and is highly contagious … Read more.

Influenza A3 [Hong Kong]

Influenza A3 is a variant of the influenza virus, also known as the “seasonal flu”. Flu viruses mutate with alarming speed, which has resulted in many variants of these very contagious pathogens. Influenza A3 contains strains of influenza of avian and human varieties. The A3 influenza virus is responsible for several high profile epidemics, including the Hong Kong flu of 1968-1969, killing over 1 million people worldwide… Read more.

Influenza A Virus

Influenza A virus a single-celled RNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Like other variants of the influenza virus, Influenza A virus infects the respiratory system of birds and some mammals, including humans. Like other flu’s, outbreaks are more common in during “flu season”, from late fall through early spring. The virus is occasionally transmitted from wildfowl to domestic flocks, resulting in pandemic infection outbreaks… Read more.


Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. Klebsiella pneumoniae infection can cause different types of healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis … Read more.



Legionella is a pathogenic bacteria that causes legionellosis, a respiratory disease in humans. Sometimes the bacteria cause a serious type of pneumonia (lung infection) called Legionnaires’ disease. The bacteria can also cause a less serious infection called Pontiac fever that has symptoms similar to a mild case of the flu … Read more.

Listeria monocytogenes

Listeria monocytogenes is a species of pathogenic bacteria, which causes the infection listeriosis. The bacteria was named after Joseph Lister, a pioneer of antiseptic surgery. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, meaning it can survive in the presence or absence of oxygen … Read more.


Marek's Disease Virus

Marek’s disease is a highly contagious viral neoplastic disease in chickens, named after József Marek, a Hungarian veterinarian. Chickens are a natural host for Marek’s disease virus, however Quail can be naturally infected and turkeys can be infected in a research setting… Read more.

Mouse Hepatitis

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a type of coronavirus that affects rodents, especially colonies of laboratory mice. The virus causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality rates and can be catastrophic among dense populations. Although the infection generally causes no overt clinical signs, it can cause profound changes in the immune system, affecting the interpretation of a wide variety of experimental results … Read more.

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a type of staph bacteria that’s become resistant to many of the antibiotics used to treat ordinary staph infections. Because it’s hard to treat, MRSA is sometimes called a “super bug.” Infection most prominently begins with a swollen, painful skin rash … Read more.

Mouse Parvovirus type 1 (MPV-)1

Mouse Parvovirus type 1 (MPV-)1, along with minute virus of mice, is one of two major parvoviruses affecting murine populations. The and used to be known as orphan parvovirus because of the distinct detrimental effects it has on developing fetuses… Read more.

Minute Virus of Mice

Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) is a variety of parvovirus occurring in rodents such as mice. MVM is a common infection in laboratory mice due to its highly contagious nature and spreads rapidly if not addressed … Read more.

Murine Norovirus

Murine norovirus, also known as MNV, is a species of norovirus affecting rodents, specifically, mice. MNV is the most common gastrointestinal pathogen of research mice and can alter research outcomes in biomedical mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Murine noroviruses share pathogenic properties with human noroviruses. Specifically, they are infectious orally, they spread between mice, and at least one strain, MNV-1, causes mild diarrhea in their hosts … Read more.

Murine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1

Murine parainfluenza virus Type 1, also known as is the Sendai virus. Which is a species in the genus Respirovirus, which also contains the common flu. The virus is immunosuppressive and can have an immediate, as well as a long-term effect, on the host’s immune system. As a result, a Sendai virus infection may cause high morbidity and mortality rates when combined with bacterial pathogens … Read more.

Mycobacterium bovis

Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a slow-growing aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB). It is related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium which causes tuberculosis in humans. M. bovis, and can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis in humans and other mammals … Read more.

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, better known as the bacteria that causes TB, is an infectious bacteria infects the lungs, brain, and spine. Guinea pigs are innately susceptible while humans, mice and rabbits show different level of resistance depending upon their genotype. Read more.


Newcastle disease virus

Newcastle disease virus (NVD) is a contagious viral bird disease affecting many domestic and wild avian species. The disease is also transmittable to humans. Exposure of humans to infected birds (for example in poultry processing plants) can cause mild conjunctivitis and influenza-like symptoms, but the Newcastle disease virus otherwise poses no hazard to human health … Read more.


The common “stomach bug”, known as the norovirus, is a highly contagious diarrheal and vomiting bug. The virus thrives in compact populations such as schools, nursing homes, child care centers, cruise ships, and hospitals, commonly spread through food or water that is contaminated during preparation or contaminated surfaces… Read more.



Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus

Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus, best known by the misnomer “Swine Flu”, is a new strain of H1N1 first identified in 2009. This is actually the second worldwide pandemic involving H1N1, the first being the 1918 influenza epidemic… Read more.

Porcine circovirus type 2

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a single-stranded DNA virus. viral infection by itself tends to cause only mild disease, however, it can develop into what is known as post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV2 infection is widespread and essentially all pig herds are infected with PCV2. The disease is characterized by wasting and infertility among infected herds, causing great economic impact… Read more.


Paramyxovirus hosts the same family of viruses including measles, mumps, and respiratory tract infections. These viruses are known to cause mild or severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children… Read more.

Porcine Parvovirus

Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV) is the most common and important cause of infectious infertility in swine. Although the virus is ubiquitous among swine throughout the world and is enzootic in most herds that have been tested, The absence of outward clinical signs makes this infection especially dangerous… Read more.

Poliovirus Type 1

Poliovirus Type 1 is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae. The virus infects humans in two different ways, the infection is either a mild illness without serious symptoms, or the virus infects the central nervous system and may cause paralysis… Read more.

Porcine Respiratory & Reproductive Syndrome virus

Porcine Respiratory & Reproductive Syndrome virus is a virus that causes a disease of pigs, called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), also known as “blue-ear pig disease”. This economically important disease causes reproductive failure in breeding stock and respiratory tract illness in young pigs… Read more.


Prions are misfolded proteins that can cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. They are highly resistant to inactivation and can persist in the environment for long periods of time. Prions pose a significant… Read more.

Pseudorabies virus

Pseudorabies virus is an acute, frequently fatal disease with a worldwide distribution that affects swine primarily, and other domestic and wild animals incidentally. Pseudorabies virus has emerged as a significant pathogen in the USA since the 1960s, primarily due to the increase in confinement swine. Clinical signs in nonporcine animals are similar to those of rabies, hence the name “mad itch”. Pseudorabies is a reportable disease and has been successfully eradicated from the vast majority of the USA… Read more.

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus mirabilis is part of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. It can also be found free-living in water and soil. However, when this organism enters the body through the urinary tract, wounds, or the lungs it can become pathogenic. Proteus mirabilis commonly causes urinary tract infections and the formation of stones… Read more.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become an important cause of gram-negative infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. Serious Pseudomonas infections usually occur in people in the hospital or with weakened immune systems.  Infections of the blood, pneumonia, and infections following surgery can lead to severe illness and death in these people… Read more.



Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals that infects the central nervous system. The virus is most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal. The vast majority of rabies cases are spread through bites from wild animals like raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. Rabies is almost always fatal following the onset of clinical symptoms…  Read more.


The rhinovirus, best known as the common cold, is one of the most commonly encountered pathogenic agents on the planet. Though it is not commonly dangerous, it proliferates throughout the autumn and winter months on a yearly basis. The virus attacks the upper respiratory system, resulting in nasal and sinus irritation…  Read more.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Respiratory syncytial virus, known as RSV, causes infections of the lungs and respiratory tract. It’s so common that most children will be infected with the virus by age 2. The virus usually causes mild, cold-like symptoms and most people recover in a week or two. RSV can be serious, however, especially for infants and older adults… Read more.

Rhinovirus Type 39

Rhinovirus Type 39 is a type of common cold virus. There are currently around 160 recognized types of human rhinoviruses that differ according to their surface proteins. While not generally dangerous, the virus infects millions of people each year throughout the autumn and winter months, when it thrives…  Read more.


Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is a serious disease in rabbits that has been detected in California. RHD is not a food safety concern and the disease holds no risk to humans. We have several RHDv2 Disinfectants that meet EPA’s emerging viral pathogen criteria.  Read more.


Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis, the inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus disease. Severe cases can result in dangerous dehydration levels and hospitalization may be required… Read more.


Salmonella choleraesuis

Salmonella enterica is a rod-shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the genus Salmonella. It is considered a serious human pathogen and the main cause of food-borne infection in humans. Most infections are caused by food infected with S. enterica, which often infects cattle and poultry produced for consumption… Read more.

Salmonella enterica

Salmonella enterica is a rod-shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium and a member of the genus Salmonella. It is considered a serious human pathogen and the main cause of food-borne infection in humans. Most infections are caused by food infected with S. enterica, which often infects cattle and poultry produced for consumption… Read more.

Salmonella typhi

Salmonella typhi, also known as typhoid fever, is an obligate parasite that has no known natural reservoir outside of humans. Worldwide, typhoid fever affects roughly 17 million people annually, causing nearly 600,000 deaths. The bacteria causes sudden onset of a sustained and systemic fever, severe headache, nausea, and loss of appetite. Mortality rates are falling in the US and developed nations, but the disease is still a serious risk… Read more.


SARS-CoV-2, otherwise known as the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, is the strain of coronavirus that causes the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Colloquially known as simply the coronavirus, it was previously referred to by its provisional name… Read more.

Serratia marcescens

Serratia marcescens is a species of rod-shaped gram-negative bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria is pathogenic to humans and is responsible for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), particularly through catheters, urinary tract infections, and wound infections…  Read more.

Shigella dysenteriae

Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella . S. dysenteriae is found worldwide but concentrates in areas where the population suffer from overcrowding and malnutrition and do not possess adequate waste management and safe drinking water supplies. S. dysenteriae most commonly found in contaminated food and water and generally does not survive well outside the human body… Read more.

Sialodacryoadenitis Virus

Sialodacryoadenitis a type of coronavirus infection that affects the nasal cavities, lungs, salivary glands and the Harderian gland in rats. These are highly infectious diseases that can be spread from rat to rat simply by being in the same vicinity as an infected rat. Arial spread of the virus is common through sneezing by the infected rats. In addition, rats do not always show signs of being infected, making this virus an unexpected danger… Read more.

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus, sometimes known simply as “staph”, is a bacterium that is a member of the normal flora of the body.Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infection such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. despite much research and development, there is no approved vaccine for S. aureus… Read more.

Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as “Group A Strep”, is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin microbiota. Infection with S. pyogenes is the cause of many important human diseases, ranging from mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases including strep throat, toxic shock syndrome, impetigo, scarlet fever, impetigo, and necrotizing fasciitis…  Read more.

Swine Influenza A virus

Swine influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza in pigs.  Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections of swine flu have occurred, these are known as “variant viruses”. Swine flu is a highly contagious respiratory disease that causes chills, fever, coughing, and other flu-like symptoms… Read more.



Tuberculosis, better known as TB, is an infectious disease in humans that infects the lungs, brain, and spine. Not everybody infected with TB falls ill. Therefore, the distinction between carriers (Latent TB) and TB disease is crucial. If untreated, the disease can be fatal. Not long ago, TB was a leading cause of death in the US and worldwide. Now, most cases can be cured with antibiotic treatment… Read more.


Theilovirus is a non-enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Theilovirus, also known as Mouse encephalomyelitis virus, infects the brain and spinal chord of mice and other murines. Infection is most commonly encountered in research facilities due to the virus’s utility as a useful model for multiple sclerosis… Read more.

Tetracycline, novobiocin, streptomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus

Occasionally staphylococcus aureus populations grow to develop a resistance to novobiocin, tetracycline, and to a combination of these antibiotics. This can be highly problematic for researchers and healthcare providers alike. Due to its resistance to traditional antibiotic treatment, tetracycline, novobiocin, streptomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus is extremely contagious and is considered dangerous…  Read more.

Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus

Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) is an infectious virus named after the Max Theiler, the virologist who discovered the pathogen in 1937. The virus belongs to the Picornavirus family, which is shared by other viruses such as poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and rhinovirus.TMEV induces a biphasic disease in susceptible mouse strains. Acute infection in mice shows a distinct apoptosis of neurons in the grey matter. This pathogen is also commonly used as an experimental model for multiple sclerosis… Read more.

Transmissible Gastroenteritis

Transmissible Gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a type of coronavirus primarily infecting pigs. TGEV is one of the leading causes of death suckling pigs and has a formidable economic impact on the industry. The virus attacks the cell lining of the intestinal wall, leading to an inability to digest food and severe dehydration. Mortality rates are close to 100% among pigs less than 1 month old… Read more.

Trichophyton mentagrophytes

Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a species of fungus affecting both animals and humans alike. T. mentagrohphytes are found in a variety of environments, and infections can take several forms. T. mentagrohphytes is responsible for scaly, inflamed fungal infections like ringworm and athlete’s foot… Read more.



Vaccinia Virus

Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used more extensively for human immunization than any other vaccine. It is best known as the vaccination for the smallpox virus and is credited with the eradication of the disease. Uncontrolled, VACV can cause a serious illness characterized by the eruption of small pock-like lesions throughout the skin and internal organs. Vaccinations using VACV have been on the rise since 2003 when it emerged that the smallpox virus could be employed by bioterrorists…  Read more.

Vesicular Stomatitis virus

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family as the well-known rabies virus. VSV can affect horses, cattle, and pigs and causes clinical symptoms very similar to foot-in-mouth disease. The disease can spread rapidly through close contact or through biting insects and as such is prone to epidemics…  Read more.

Vancomycin Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) is a specific type of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.  Staph is a commonly found bacteria that does not usually cause an infection in humans. However, the wide-spread abuse of antibiotics has created strains that are resistant to treatment… Read more.

Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) is a strain of the pathogenic bacteria Enteroccocus that is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. Enterococci are not generally regarded as highly virulent bacterial pathogens. However, resistance to many antimicrobial drugs complicates treatment of enterococcal infections. Acquired resistance to high concentrations of glycopeptide antibiotics, specifically vancomycin, has created new problems with treatment and prevention… Read more.




Yersinia enterocolitica

Yersinia enterocolitica bacteria that causes infection by eating raw or undercooked pork. CDC estimates Y. enterocolitica causes almost 117,000 illnesses, 640 hospitalizations, and 35 deaths in the United States every year. The bacteria is spread through ingesting raw meat, unpasteurized milk, or untreated water…  Read more.